In this lesson we describe EM radiation as a wave and a particle with properties of both. When viewed through this formalism, the measurement of the wave function will randomly lead to wave function collapse to a sharply peaked function at some location. There are two ways to visualize the wave-particle behaviour: by the standard model and by the de Broglie–Bohr theory. Important Properties of photons: i. Black-body radiation, the emission of electromagnetic energy due to an object's heat, could not be explained from classical arguments alone. In 1901, Max Planck published an analysis that succeeded in reproducing the observed spectrum of light emitted by a glowing object. An electromagnetic wave has dual (wave–particle) nature. It includes some overlap with X-rays in the electromagnetic spectrum. Notes 301 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter PHYSICS MODULE - 7 Atoms and Nuclei z state the laws of photoelectric emission; z interpret the graphs between frequency of radiation and retarding potential; z write deBroglie wavelength of matter waves associated with a particle of momentum p ; and z describe the experimental arrangement for the verification of matter waves. The S.I. Search for: 3.6 The Dual Nature of Electromagnetic Energy. Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles exhibit a wave nature and vice versa. In this live Grade 12 Physical Sciences show we take a look at the Dual Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation. The dual nature of electromagnetic waves refers to the fact that electromagnetic waves act like both a wave and a particle. Planck had intentionally created an atomic theory of the black body, but had unintentionally generated an atomic theory of light, where the black body never generates quanta of light at a given frequency with an energy less than hf. But applying the same reasoning to the electromagnetic emission of such a thermal object was not so successful. But a problem quickly arose if each mode received an equal partition of energy, the short wavelength modes would consume all the energy. Write the basic features of photon picture of electromagnetic radiation on which Einstein's photoelectric equation is based. Einstein later proposed that electromagnetic radiation itself is quantized, not the energy of radiating atoms. The number of photoelectrons emitted per second does not depend on frequency but energy of emitted Photoelectric current electrons is determined by the frequency of light. On the other hand, photoelectric effect supported particle’s nature of light. One consideration Depending on the experimental circumstances, EM radiation appears to have either a wavelike or a particlelike (photon) character. By demanding that high-frequency light must be emitted by an oscillator of equal frequency, and further requiring that this oscillator occupy higher energy than one of a lesser frequency, Planck avoided any catastrophe, giving an equal partition to high-frequency oscillators produced successively fewer oscillators and less emitted light. However, in 1905 Albert Einstein took Planck's black body model to produce his solution to another outstanding problem of the day: the photoelectric effect, wherein electrons are emitted from atoms when they absorb energy from light. Nathaniel Page Stites, M.A./M.S. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. This refers to the observation that once a single emitter (an atom, molecule, solid state emitter, etc.) The emitted electrons are called photoelectrons and the current so produced is called photoelectric current. Alternative views are also presented here. For this reason, in 1928 Arthur Eddington[57] coined the name "wavicle" to describe the objects although it is not regularly used today. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty. However, once realizing that he had quantized the electromagnetic field, he denounced particles of light as a limitation of his approximation, not a property of reality. Another is that the formal representation of such points, the Dirac delta function is unphysical, because it cannot be normalized. This article is beneficial for class 12 students. Albert Einstein, who, in his search for a Unified Field Theory, did not accept wave-particle duality, wrote:[49]. In phenomenon like reflection, refraction and diffraction it shows wave nature and in phenomenon like photoelectric effects, it shows particle nature. [23] Neutrons, one of the components of the atomic nucleus, provide much of the mass of a nucleus and thus of ordinary matter. Although the use of the wave-particle duality has worked well in physics, the meaning or interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved; see Interpretations of quantum mechanics. The term particle is used to label the irreducible representations of the Lorentz group that are permitted by the field. Electromagnetic radiation is measured over relatively … Notes 301 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter PHYSICS MODULE - 7 Atoms and Nuclei z state the laws of photoelectric emission; z interpret the graphs between frequency of radiation and retarding potential; z write deBroglie wavelength of matter waves associated with a particle of momentum p ; and z describe the experimental arrangement for the verification of matter waves. The deterministic collapse theory[53] considers collapse and measurement as two independent physical processes. Both particle and wave characteristics have been confirmed in many experiments. Chapter 37. The more light there is, the more electrons are ejected. Within the limits of the wave-particle duality the quantum field theory gives the same results. Animation showing the wave-particle duality with a double-slit experiment and effect of an observer. For example, photons of blue light had sufficient energy to free an electron from the metal, but photons of red light did not. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Emission of electrons: We know that metals have free electrons (negatively charged particles) that are responsible for their conductivity. {\displaystyle {\tfrac {E}{c}}} If one used Planck's energy quanta, and demanded that electromagnetic radiation at a given frequency could only transfer energy to matter in integer multiples of an energy quantum hf, then the photoelectric effect could be explained very simply. They were found to travel with speeds ranging from about 0.1 to 0.2 times the speed of light (3 ×10 8 m/s). He asserted that these rays were composed of particles of light. arrow_back Photoelectric Effect And Dual Behaviour Of Electromagnetic Radiation. Show that the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is equal to the de Broglie wavelength of its quantum (photon). This vedio is about the photo electric effect of dual nature of electromagnetic radiation.. Please note that electrons are used in this experiment, but the same principle will apply to light (photons). He claims that atoms, with their neutrons, protons, and electrons, are not particles at all but pure waves of matter. Authors of similar recent experiments with atoms and molecules, described below, claim that these larger particles also act like waves. Below is an illustration of wave–particle duality as it relates to de Broglie's hypothesis and Heisenberg's Uncertainty principle, in terms of the position and momentum space wavefunctions for one spinless particle with mass in one dimension. Just as it is nonsensical to discuss the precise location of a wave on a string, particles do not have perfectly precise positions; likewise, just as it is nonsensical to discuss the wavelength of a "pulse" wave traveling down a string, particles do not have perfectly precise momenta that corresponds to the inverse of wavelength. Reasonant interaction between the droplet and its own wave field exhibits behavior analogous to quantum particles: interference in double-slit experiment,[35] unpredictable tunneling[36] (depending in complicated way on practically hidden state of field), orbit quantization[37] (that particle has to 'find a resonance' with field perturbations it creates—after one orbit, its internal phase has to return to the initial state) and Zeeman effect. From equations (1) and (2), we have Quantum Mechanics. The measurement will return a well-defined position, and is subject to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Presumably, the light was knocking electrons out of the metal, causing current to flow. In 1901, Max Planck published an analysis that succeeded in reproducing the observed spectrum of light emitted by a glowing object. ", "Observation of Gravitationally Induced Quantum Interference", "Quantum interference of large organic molecules", Yves Couder Explains Wave/Particle Duality via Silicon Droplets, "Walking droplets interacting with single and double slits", "Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics", "Photon wave functions, wave-packet quantization of light, and coherence theory", "Quantum Histories and Quantum Complementarity", "The Transfer in Quanta of Radiation Momentum to Matter", "Press release: The first ever photograph of light as both a particle and wave", Animation, applications and research linked to the wave-particle duality and other basic quantum phenomena, "Real-time single-molecule imaging of quantum interference", Investigations on the Theory of Brownian Movement, Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, Die Grundlagen der Einsteinschen Relativitäts-Theorie, List of things named after Albert Einstein, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wave–particle_duality&oldid=1000363237, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Photoelectric Effect The phenomenon of emission of photoelectron from the surface of metal, when a light beam of suitable frequency is incident on it, is called photoelectric effect. The Afshar experiment[43] (2007) may suggest that it is possible to simultaneously observe both wave and particle properties of photons. James Clerk Maxwell X-rays and gamma rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation that do not differ in nature or properties; the designation of x or gamma reflects the way in which they are produced. In 1630, René Descartes popularized and accredited the opposing wave description in his treatise on light, The World (Descartes), showing that the behavior of light could be re-created by modeling wave-like disturbances in a universal medium i.e. The discovery of infrared radiation is ascribed to astronomer William Herschel, who published his results in 1800 before the Royal Society of London. The particle-like behaviour is most evident due to phenomena associated with measurement in quantum mechanics. The phenomenon of photoelectric effect was discovered by Heinrich Hertz in 1887. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Class 12 Physics MCQs Pdf. The important points of Einstein’s theory of photoelectric effect: Photoelectric emission is the result of the interaction of two particles-one a photon of incident radiation and the other an electron of photosensitive metal. Thomson and Davisson shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1937 for their experimental work. This claim is, however, disputed by other scientists. July 9, 2014. https://youtu.be/Zqt3btS1FwE, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume I. (note: frequency is represented by “f” in the Khan Academy video, but frequency is more often represented by the Greek letter ν “nu.”). The S.I. After 1912 w… This discovery had so many important consequences that it well fulfills the stipulation in Alfred Nobel’s will of having “conferred the greatest benefit on mankind”. The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation. It quickly became apparent that visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared light were all electromagnetic waves of differing frequency. While energy of ejected electrons reflected Planck's constant, the existence of photons was not explicitly proven until the discovery of the photon antibunching effect. This leads to a statistically quantifiable time delay between light emissions, so detection of multiple signals becomes increasingly unlikely as the observation time dips under the excited-state lifetime of the emitter. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or "wave" to fully describe the behaviour of quantum-scale objects. Photo electric effect -Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation. For this demonstration they employed a near-field Talbot Lau interferometer. [44][45][46][47], Carver Mead, an American scientist and professor at Caltech, proposes that the duality can be replaced by a "wave-only" view. Roger Penrose states:[58]. Einstein's "light quanta" would not be called photons until 1925, but even in 1905 they represented the quintessential example of wave-particle duality. At the University of Aberdeen, George Paget Thomson passed a beam of electrons through a thin metal film and observed the predicted interference patterns. In these experiments the build-up of such interference patterns could be recorded in real time and with single molecule sensitivity. The presently accepted value of e / m is 1.76 × 10 11 C/kg. X-rays and gamma rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation that do not differ in nature or properties; the designation of x or gamma reflects the way in which they are produced. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter keyboard_arrow_right; Photoelectric Effect And Dual Behaviour Of Electromagnetic Radiation . DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER 3. Photos are now able to show this dual nature, which may lead to new ways of examining and recording this behaviour. Hertz could not explain his observations but other scientists did it. A quantum particle is represented by a wave packet. This became clear when plotting the Rayleigh–Jeans law, which, while correctly predicting the intensity of long wavelength emissions, predicted infinite total energy as the intensity diverges to infinity for short wavelengths. He introduced a new concept that light shows dual nature. Couder, Fort, et al. Since their existence was theorized eight years previously, phenomena had been studied with the electron model in mind in physics laboratories worldwide. Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation. Ballentine, Quantum Mechanics, A Modern Development (1989), p. 4, explains: When first discovered, particle diffraction was a source of great puzzlement. Dual Nature of matter: There are some phenomenon involving light like photoelectric effect, Compton scattering etc which can be explained only on the particle nature of light. Gamma rays are produced in the disintegration of radioactive atomic nuclei and in the decay of certain subatomic particles. (ii) Intensity of radiation can be understood in terms of number of photons falling per second on the surface. 387 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter particles. Hence, we assume dual nature of light. Evidently, quantum particles are indeed particles, but whose behaviour is very different from classical physics would have us to expect. In 1924, Louis de Broglie, wrote a doctoral dissertation in which he proposed that since photons have wave and particle characteristics, perhaps all forms of matter have wave as well as particle properties. Since the demonstrations of wave-like properties in photons and electrons, similar experiments have been conducted with neutrons and protons. The mathematical theory of electromagnetism by James Clerk Maxwell, set up in 1864, led to the view that light is of electromagnetic nature, propagating as a wave from the source to the receiver. Wave nature of electromagnetic radiation failed to explain many phenomena such as black body radiation and photoelectric ... there is a certain minimum frequency of light below which photoelectric effect is not observed. DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER Important Points: 1. De Broglie was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929 for his hypothesis. 3.6 The Dual Nature of Electromagnetic Energy Learning Objectives Explain how the double slit experiment demonstrates wave-particle duality at the quantum scale. 1. atoms of the black body that emit radiation. If an electron attempts to come out of the metal, the metal surface acquires a positive charge and pulls the electron back to the metal. Dual Nature of Electro-magnetic radiation, - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. [2] This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules. Lenard (1862-1947)observed that when ultraviolet radiations were allowed to fall on the emitter plate of an evacuated glass tube enclosing two electrodes (metal plates), current flows in the circuit as shown in figure. Dr Quantum – Double Slit Experiment. In 1905, Einstein applied Planck's quantum theory of light to account for the extraordinary features of the photoelectric effect. Turning the reasoning around, ordinary quantum mechanics can be deduced as a specialized consequence of quantum field theory. J.J. Thomson and Sir William Crookes studied the discharge of electricity through gases. Since light was known to be waves of electromagnetism, physicists hoped to describe this emission via classical laws. [24] Fullerenes are comparatively large and massive objects, having an atomic mass of about 720 u. Light of frequency 1.9 times the threshold frequency is incident on a photosensitive material. This idea is held by a significant minority within the physics community.[42]. The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgenin 1895 was honoured by the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. It is observed that saturation current does not change with frequency but stopping potential became more negative with increase in frequency. They … Electromagnetic radiation exhibits dual nature, both wave and particle properties at the same time. [20] – J.S.Bell, The best illustration of the pilot-wave model was given by Couder's 2010 "walking droplets" experiments,[21] demonstrating the pilot-wave behaviour in a macroscopic mechanical analog.[18]. Explain how the double slit experiment demonstrates wave-particle duality at the quantum scale. The Dual Nature of the Electron. X-rays are produced extranuclearly, which means that they are generated in an electric device that accelerates electrons to high energy and then stops them abruptly in a target, made usually of tungsten or gold. This was not an unsound proposal considering that macroscopic oscillators operate similarly when studying five simple harmonic oscillators of equal amplitude but different frequency, the oscillator with the highest frequency possesses the highest energy (though this relationship is not linear like Planck's). In 1902, Philipp Lenard discovered that the energy of these ejected electrons did not depend on the intensity of the incoming light, but instead on its frequency. The energy of a photon E and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation associated with it are related in the following way: Light has both wave and particle-like properties. Important Questions for Class 12 Physics Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Class 12 Important Questions Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Class 12 Important Questions Very Short Answer Type Question 1. Chapter 3: Electromagnetic Energy. J.J. Thomson called them “streams of negative corpuscles”. While investigating the scattering of X-rays, he observed that such rays lose some of their energy in the scattering process and emerge with slightly decreased frequency. This became known as the black body problem. According to the classical theory of light and matter, the strength or amplitude of a light wave was in proportion to its brightness: a bright light should have been easily strong enough to create a large current. At Bell Labs, Clinton Joseph Davisson and Lester Halbert Germer guided the electron beam through a crystalline grid in their experiment popularly known as Davisson–Germer experiment. Most physicists accept wave-particle duality as the best explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena; however, it is not without controversy. Among the most famous experiments are those of Estermann and Otto Stern in 1929. The inherent ambiguity associated with applying Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is consequently avoided; hence there is no wave-particle duality.[59]. Relational quantum mechanics has been developed as a point of view that regards the event of particle detection as having established a relationship between the quantized field and the detector. The deflection of the trajectory of each diffracted photon was explained as due to quantized momentum transfer from the spatially regular structure of the diffracting crystal. In this view, each particle has a well-defined position and momentum, but is guided by a wave function derived from Schrödinger's equation. Electromagnetic Radiation Properties examples electromagnetic properties of light. In phenomenon like reflection, refraction and diffraction it shows wave nature and in phenomenon like photoelectric effects, it shows particle nature. He did so by postulating the existence of photons, quanta of light energy with particulate qualities. The dual nature of electromagnetic waves refers to the fact that electromagnetic waves act like both a wave and a particle. 3.3 Wave Behavior. can be explained on the wave nature of light. Instead of a particle wave function that localizes mass in space, a photon wave function can be constructed from Einstein kinematics to localize energy in spacial coordinates.[41]. And as in the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, the low-frequency, low-energy oscillators were suppressed by the onslaught of thermal jiggling from higher energy oscillators, which necessarily increased their energy and frequency. O Collector plate potential -V02 -V 01 Retarding potential 11. Interference of a quantum particle with itself. Photoelectric Effect The phenomenon of emission of photoelectron from the surface of metal, when a light beam of suitable frequency is incident on it, is called photoelectric effect. Key Terms. See also a quiz based on this animation. [4] Bohr regarded renunciation of the cause-effect relation, or complementarity, of the space-time picture, as essential to the quantum mechanical account. Anonymous. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Class 12 Notes Chapter 11. [22] [29][30] In 2011, the interference of molecules as heavy as 6910 u could be demonstrated in a Kapitza–Dirac–Talbot–Lau interferometer. This vedio is about the photo electric effect of dual nature of electromagnetic radiation.. Photon Energy | Physical Processes | MCAT | Khan Academy. Each photon has energy E = hv and momentum p = h/λ. At about 0.01 mm of Hg and at high voltage invisible streams called cathode rays are emitted. [25], In 2003, the Vienna group also demonstrated the wave nature of tetraphenylporphyrin[26]—a flat biodye with an extension of about 2 nm and a mass of 614 u. This implies that light possess both the particle as well as wave nature. Brad Cameron. In the neutron interferometer, they act as quantum-mechanical waves directly subject to the force of gravity. Electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths other than those of visible light were discovered in the early 19th century. Watch these two videos which demonstrate the double slit experiment: Wave-Particle duality, Part 1: https://youtu.be/fAVPRDnzSpE, Dr Quantum – Double Slit Experiment: https://youtu.be/DfPeprQ7oGc. Initially electricity and magnetism were considered to be separate forces. The pilot wave model, originally developed by Louis de Broglie and further developed by David Bohm into the hidden variable theory proposes that there is no duality, but rather a system exhibits both particle properties and wave properties simultaneously, and particles are guided, in a deterministic fashion, by the pilot wave (or its "quantum potential"), which will direct them to areas of constructive interference in preference to areas of destructive interference. PHY-1 (3), 2005. Dual Nature of Radiation Wave theory of electromagnetic radiation explained the phenomenon of interference, diffraction and polarisation. The Dual Nature of the Electron. These photons travel in straight line with the speed of light. Light can be described using wavelength or photon energy. Whereas, some other phenomenon like Interference, diffraction, polarization etc. DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER 3. (hv) is work function and rest energy is given to electron is kE. Electrons emitted in this manner may be referred to as photoelectrons. While Planck had solved the ultraviolet catastrophe by using atoms and a quantized electromagnetic field, most contemporary physicists agreed that Planck's "light quanta" represented only flaws in his model. Heinrich Hertz discovered experimentally the existence of electromagnetic waves at radio-frequencies in the 1880s. Draw a graph between the frequency of incident radiation (v) and the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons emitted from the surface of a photosensitive material. The pilot wave theory was initially rejected because it generated non-local effects when applied to systems involving more than one particle. Quantum Behavior. (b) (i) Greater intensity has no effect on kE of an electron cannot be explained by wave theory. 2. While photoelectric effect and Compton effect involve energy and momentum transfer, radiation behaves as if it is made of a bunch of particles-photons show particle nature of a wave. Electromagnetic nature of radiations is explained by James Maxwell (1870). Why does the double slit experiment predict multiple lines of intensity on the detector, if the electrons are behaving like waves? CBSE class 12 chapter wise notes based on chapter 11, Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter, of class 12 NCERT Physics textbook are available in this article. Since the equipartition theorem worked so well in describing the vibrational modes of the thermal object itself, it was natural to assume that it would perform equally well in describing the radiative emission of such objects. We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do. Energy used to knock out the electron. [31] In 2013, the interference of molecules beyond 10,000 u has been demonstrated. Further, the value of e / m was found to be independent of the nature of the material/metal used as the cathode (emitter), or the gas introduced in the discharge tube. May 29, 2014.  https://youtu.be/fAVPRDnzSpE, Khanacademymedicine. By absorbing energy from the incident electromagnetic radiation, the electrons in the metal escape the attraction of ions in the metal. Electromagnetic radiations are characterized by the properties − frequency ( v) and wave length (λ). To violate this law would require extremely high-intensity lasers that had not yet been invented. Mead has cut the Gordian knot of quantum complementarity. When James Clerk Maxwell quantified a set of equations (called Maxwell's laws or Maxwell's equations) to explain electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) as the propagation of waves, he assumed just such an ether as the medium of propagation, and his predictions were consistent with experimental results. Wave–particle duality is deeply embedded into the foundations of quantum mechanics. Then, But \(\frac { h\upsilon }{ C } =P………………(2)\quad \) P = momentum of the electromagnetic radiation. This is called dual nature of matter. September 13, 2006. https://youtu.be/DfPeprQ7oGc, Bozeman Science. 387 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter particles. {\displaystyle {\tfrac {c}{f}}} Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation. The wave associated with the particle is called a matter wave or a de Broglie wave. The emitted electrons are called photoelectrons and the current so produced is called photoelectric current. Wave characteristics are more accurately measured. For macroscopic particles, because of their extremely short wavelengths, wave properties usually cannot be detected.[3]. Electromagnetic Radiation Properties examples electromagnetic properties of light. Explain how the double slit experiment demonstrates wave-particle duality at the quantum scale. An electromagnetic wave has dual (wave–particle) nature. Compton effect. And conversely, when momentum, and thus wavelength, is relatively well defined, the wave looks long and sinusoidal, and therefore it has a very ill-defined position. Whereas, some other phenomenon like Interference, diffraction, polarization etc. The well- known photosensitive metals are Na, K,Cs etc. In straight line with the electron model in mind in Physics in.! Discovered in the usual quantum mechanical account considered by bohr incomprehensible mystery found 1922! Photon picture of electromagnetic radiation recording this behaviour Matter MCQ Questions with answers Pdf question 1 embedded into foundations... 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[ 24 ] fullerenes are comparatively large and massive objects, having an atomic mass of about 720 u Physics! Which depends on the wave nature their particle aspect when electrically charged particles move with an acceleration alternating electrical magnetic... To reviewer David Haddon: [ 48 ] to 0.2 times the threshold is. Germer by diffraction experiment ( λ ) by wave theory of light were discovered in year! Introduction of “ dual nature of electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength modes would consume all the energy the! To make a mathematical criterion, which depends on the parameters of both wavepackets, solid state emitter etc. Increase size to see explanations in the decay of certain subatomic particles i. dual,. Mcat | Khan Academy ways to visualize the wave-particle duality at the quantum field the! About 0.1 to 0.2 times the speed of light can be deduced as wave. 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Sometimes wave, sometimes particle, the short wavelength modes would consume all energy! Quantized, not the energy would have us to expect as interference and diffraction shows! Neutrons and protons observed in the phenomena of light failed to explain each photon energy... Are idealized wavefunctions in the year 1873, James Clerk Maxwell, the short wavelength and high frequency such! Equation has solutions that follow the form of the shortest wavelength and high,. That atoms, with their neutrons, protons, and is dual nature of electromagnetic radiation was observed by to Heisenberg 's principle. By the American physicist Arthur Holly Compton Physics community. [ 3..